What is the name of the MySQL table that relates to all of the field tables
To answer your question literally, there isn't a single MySQL table that relates to all of the field tables.
field_config- Holds config information for all fields.
field_config_instance- Holds config information for all instances of fields.
field_data_*- Holds data for multiple instances of the same field.
field_revision_*- Holds revision data for the equivalent