There appears to be a dev version of the Prepopulate module for Drupal 7:
The Prepopulate module allows fields in most forms to be pre-populated from the $_REQUEST variable.
For example, the following URL,
http://www.example.com/node/add/blog?edit[title]=this is the title
will automatically fill the Title field on a new blog post with the words "this is the title". Any field can be prepopulated this way, including taxonomy and CCK fields. You can prepopulate more than one field at a time as well. Prepopulate is excellent for creating bookmarklets. For examples on usage for all of these cases, please read the USAGE.txt file that comes with the module or you can read the online handbook page.
So you would just have to craft that button on your City node page to include the additional variable for your city field.
If for whatever reason this doesn't work exactly to your liking, eg, I am not sure if it allows for hiding of the prepopulated field, it would be fairly trivial to craft the functionality in a form_alter() hook in a custom module.