As you said "Disable functionality is removed from Drupal 8" ..
The short answer is - you probably are looking for the "Uninstall" tab found on the "Extend" (Modules) page /admin/modules/uninstall
There is no longer any grey area between a module being on and active vs off and "purged". "Disabled" is no longer a thing. Uninstalling a module means removing all traces of it.
Go to admin/modules/uninstall and uninstall module... Then enabled the module from modules list page. That should install the module again.
For Example ....
Before Installing Ban Module in Drupal 8 ... ban_ip module doesn't exist in database..
After Installing Ban Module in Drupal 8... ban_ip table is created and module cannot be disabled but can be uninstalled in admin/modules/uninstall
Now if you uninstall module.. Table will be removed from database and module can be installed again which will create tables in the database..