Attempting to structure a page within Drupal has led me down a convoluted path and I wanted to clarify the relationship between Drupal content types, modules and the views element before I ventured any further. My current understanding is that you can add content types via modules and with these various content types create a page that you can then format with views? What I am trying to do is create a basic page from various elements (pictures, tables, text, etc.) and format it through views. I realize this may be too generic to comment upon, but I would greatly appreciate any feedback!
Reading the Drupal documentation might be your best bet to get an in-depth explanation, but let me try to summarize each in my own words so you can hopefully get a basic foundation so you can understand better.
Content types - Content types are how you add any of your content to a website. For most of your general pages that have just regular text on them, nothing special, you would use the Basic Page content type to just create a basic web page, or node. However, say you were going to have an events feed on your website - you would want different fields for information that you would want to display. In this case, you would make a content type called Events (or whatever you would like), and then add fields to it (e.g., Event Title, Date, Time, Location, etc.). Now, Events would be listed as a content type you can use to add content. When you add content and choose Event to add, your fields will show up and you can add the information for an event, save that event, and repeat. Saving an event will bring you to the page for that event with all of that event's information (the formatting of which can be changed in the content type settings for that content type. Every event entry now has its own page displaying its information.
Views - Now, you have pages for events, but say you wanted to have a feed or list of events on a specific page. You would do this using a View. A view aggregates content (from one or more content types) into a display. So you would create a view, specify which fields from earlier you want to display (like maybe just event name and date) and then filter the content to just show content of type events. This view can be created as its own page, or you can create a block which you can then place in a region on another page. There is a lot of customization that Views allow you to do that isn't obvious in the beginning, but this is the gist of what views do.
Modules - Modules are jus "extras" for Drupal. Really, most of what you would need to create a basic site is already included. However, say you wanted to add some sort of fancy menu that Drupal can't already do. People have made modules to give you that capability. Say you wanted to create forms for people to fill out. There are modules for that.
If you want me to explain anything in more detail or if anything is not clear to you, feel free to ask and I can clarify or elaborate.
According to the documentation:
A single web site could contain many types of content, such as informational pages, news items, polls, blog posts, real estate listings, etc. In Drupal, each item of content is called a node, and each node belongs to a single content type, which defines various default settings for nodes of that type, such as whether the node is published automatically and whether comments are permitted.
Although not all sites have Views, most sites include the Views module because of the excellent tools it provides. Views allows people to choose a list of nodes or other entities and present them as pages, blocks, RSS feeds, or other formats. The main use case for views is to create dynamically updating lists to content (for example, a listing of latest news), based on properties of that content (in the case of the news listing, that the content type is “News” and sorted by publication date).