I have a user role called Athletics and I have given these users access to add, edit or delete the content type Athletes. However when the content type is created it just creates a node not a URL alias so the Athletics users can not navigate to a page to edit or delete. I tried giving access to the content overview but I think that would confuse my non-technical users. Is there a way to make it so they can ONLY see the content they can edit or delete within the content overview?
Administration Views will replace the admin listing pages with views, and then you can tweak it.
But looking at your question in the greater context what you really need is Contextual Admnistration. With it you can create a admin UI for your athletics role to manage content. There is a video tutorial series on Youtube.