I want the logged in user to see his name and email address in the text of a paragraph on a given page, how to I extract that information from the currently logged in users account, and show it in the body of the page?
You can create a block with the PHP code format (don't forget to activate the PHP filter module) and put inside:
<?php //Retrieve the global variable for the connected user global $user; echo 'Hello ' . $user->name; echo 'Your email is :' . $user->mail; ?>
Then you set up this block to show only for authenticated users and you place it in a region.
See Drupal global variables documentation.
You can also look into Token Filter - you add this as a processor on the text format and can then use tokens right within your content without having to enable the PHP module. Much more elegant. It may or may not work for your user tokens according to the project page, but definitely worth a shot.
A simple way would be to create a view for those fields with a contextual filter "userid from logged in user". Use the block display and show it anywhere on your site.
Please specify if you have more specific layout requirements. As with anything in Drupal there many different ways of getting to the same results ;-)