You can't. Though comment F0ns's comment is a good start, depending on your PHP skills you may find this frustrating to impossible.
I am not sure that the easiest resolution is to deal with the (possible) problem after the event.
I would not normally suggest this as an answer except that you begin your question with 'Sometimes', implying that this a is a workflow consideration rather than a specific bugfix.
You should consider your upgrade process in general. Ideally you would put the site into maintenance mode if you absolutely must perform the upgrades on a live site, so there would be no changes to the site during the process. You should always take a database backup before performing core or contrib updates, and this is made easy using backup_migrate module. If you are updating core backup the files as well (if it is contrib simpler to just download previous version)
As long as you know which updates you are applying (I do not recommend applying many at the same time), and what version of core/module you are upgrading from, then you can now easily return to your pre-upgrade state by overwriting the db and files, rather than trying to pick apart potential problems caused by a failed upgrade.
Depending on the usage of your site, it might be preferable preferable to limit administrative access to the site temporarily (or put it into maintenance mode), perform updates on a local clone of the site, and overwrite the live version with the tested, working local version, restoring administrative access.