It's easy to deploy configuration of content types, views and so on...
What are the options for deployment of content (nodes) between different environments?
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The Default Content module uses cores REST/HAL/Serialisation API's to export content to JSON. You put the content into you_module/content/[entity_type]/anything.json and the content is automatically imported when you enable your module.
Historically you had options such as leveraging the Migrate module or Feeds to achieve this (Migrate introduced the idea of continuous migration of content). While this would still be viable options (once contrib is ready), it seems the common preferred approach nowadays would be to have a 'content hub' from which you can pull content to various sites over RESTful web services. By leveraging Drupal 8's RESTful capabilities, you can totally define a deployment strategy over JSON/HAL+JSON, granted you'd lock down authentication/permissions enough to not expose your content to unprivileged resources.