You can create a View (show Users) with display "block" and add User:ID as Context Filter. For the Context Filter set "When the filter value is NOT available" to "provide default value - User ID from URL". Add all user fields that you would like to output to your view. Created Views block will then be listed on you Blocks page (structure > blocks). Once the block is there, you can drag it into the sidebar region.
If you need to remove user profile fields that are rendering in content region by default or override them, you can do so by overriding "modules/user/user-profile.tpl.php" - copying it into your theme's template folder and replacing the line that renders user profile -
<?php print render($user_profile); ?> with the desired content.
Page Manager Existing Pages + Panels is another convenient method of changing the layout of user profile. This method will work in combination with existing layout regions.