When I run contrib-module patches I download the patch file, put it in the modules folder, navigate to there with the Linux-bash and then do
git apply patch patch_file_name.
I never ran a core-patch though and I believe it's a bit different as there isn't necessarily a single module to act upon.
So, is there a one single way to run Drupal core patches and how it should be done without damaging anything? Maybe just put it in the site root folder and run it?
I ask this here so people who write such a question in Google could find this info easily.