This is the Drupal 8 version of the following question: How do I override a taxonomy/term/% list with a view?
In short: You can edit the default, global taxonomy/term/% view, but you can not set custom taxonomy view. For example, /my-custom-category/% will show the default, global view output (not the customized one).
As you can see, the most elegant solution for Drupal 7 was using the Taxonomy Display module. However, it hasn't been ported.
How would you tackle this problem in Drupal 8?