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I am trying to attach js files attach_library() inside a custom block.

However, I can neither add the libraries via block nor add a library. attach_library() does not accept variables like drupal_add_js.

Any ideas on A) how to send a php variable in the block::build() function and how to attach the library through the build() instead of the twig templates?

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This is from the documentation how to attach libraries to a render array of a block plugin and send php variables to js:

Attaching to a render array of a Block Plugin

To give another example of attaching a library to a render array, If you are building a block plugin in your module, you can attach the libraries to the render array in the build() function of your class extending the BlockBase class (as of Drupal 8 beta 6).

return array(
      '#theme' => 'your_module_theme_id',
      '#someVariable' => $some_variable,
      '#attached' => array(
        'library' =>  array(
          'your_module/library_name'
        ),
      ),
    );

Attaching configurable JavaScript

In some cases, you may want to add JavaScript to a page that depends on some computed PHP information.

In this case, create a JavaScript file, define and attach a library just like before, but also attach JavaScript settings and have that JavaScript file read those settings, via drupalSettings (the successor to Drupal 7's Drupal.settings). However, to make drupalSettings available to our JavaScript file, we have to do the same work as we had to do to make jQuery available: we have to declare a dependency on it.

So that then becomes:

cuddly-slider:
  version: 1.x
  js:
    js/cuddly-slider.js: {}
  dependencies:
    - core/jquery
    - core/drupalSettings

and

$build['#attached']['library'][] = 'fluffiness/cuddly-slider';
$build['#attached']['drupalSettings']['fluffiness']['cuddlySlider']['foo'] = 'bar';

https://www.drupal.org/developing/api/8/assets

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