Updated Answer for your Updated Question:
In views you will need to add one of 2 fields. 'Content: Path' is likely the one you are looking for though. Below is where to find it.
1) First you need to open your view for editing.
2) Next, find "Content: Path" and add it to your view.
3) Side note - If you would like a simple link you can add "Content: Link" in stead. You also have access to Content: Edit, and Content: Delete among others.
I will update this answer if you clarify your question. Specifically what you mean by 'as a field value.'
As I currently understand your question I think this may be what you're looking for.
I believe you will need to use drupal_lookup_path() to find a path alias.
Source: Drupal Community Documentation for drupal_lookup_path()
Given an alias, return its Drupal system URL if one exists. Given a
Drupal system URL return one of its aliases if such a one exists.
Otherwise, return FALSE.
$action One of the following values:
wipe: delete the alias cache.
alias: return an alias for a given
Drupal system path (if one exists).
source: return the Drupal system
URL for a path alias (if one exists).
$path The path to investigate
for corresponding aliases or system URLs.
$path_language Optional language code to search the path with.
Defaults to the page language. If there's no path defined for that
language it will search paths without language.
Either a Drupal system path, an aliased path, or FALSE if no path was