Let's assume you have a "product" node $node, and for some reason you want to render HTML from $node into a variable $html using a Twig template. I'm a bit desperate yet, what would you do?

Additional info 1: We are not in a controller, but in a simple class that is registered as a service.

Additional info 2: 4k4 's answer does work if I call my class from a controller. But as soon I call it from a Drupal Console command I get an Exception "The theme implementations may not be rendered until all modules are loaded."

Edit: The complete solution

Obviously not all modules are loaded if we call the service inside a Drupal Console command. The Theme Manager will honor this with the aforementioned exception, so we have to force load the modules:

\Drupal::moduleHandler()->loadAll(); // Load all modules if not loaded already

Now it's safe to call the renderPlain() method as suggested below:

$view_builder = \Drupal::entityTypeManager()->getViewBuilder('node');
$build = $view_builder->view($node, $view_mode, $langcode);
$html = \Drupal::service('renderer')->renderPlain($build);

Edit: But what about a full page?

If you intend to render not only the node content but a full page (from <html> to </html>) you have to have the kernel handle an appropriate sub-request .

1 Answer 1


To render a plain node view, for example for emails, use this code:

$view_builder = \Drupal::entityTypeManager()->getViewBuilder('node');
$build = $view_builder->view($node, $view_mode, $langcode);
$html = \Drupal::service('renderer')->renderPlain($build);

If you want to customize the output, use a special view mode and a template node--[view-mode].html.twig.

Edit: Full page

You can build more complex render arrays:

  $view_builder = \Drupal::entityTypeManager()->getViewBuilder('node');
  $content = $view_builder->view($node, $view_mode, $langcode);
  $build = [
    '#type' => 'html',
    'page' => [
      '#type' => 'page',
      '#theme' => 'page',
      '#title' => 'Title',
      'content' => $content,

  $html = \Drupal::service('renderer')->renderPlain($build);

This is only a basic version of a page, if you want the full version with all features like attachments and libraries you need a request on Drupal.

  • I am getting an Exception: "The theme implementations may not be rendered until all modules are loaded". I have seen this many times today. Maybe this has something to do with the fact that my code is called by a console command, but I'm totally stuck here.
    – jensjensen
    Commented Dec 20, 2016 at 16:44
  • Ok, tested it, it just works if I call it from a controller. But how can I do the same in a console command?
    – jensjensen
    Commented Dec 20, 2016 at 16:52
  • Don't know what you are trying to do, but just dropped it in a drush script and it works.
    – 4uk4
    Commented Dec 20, 2016 at 16:58
  • Not to use drush is a project requirement, I have to use drupal/console instead. I hope it is just an incompatibility between the current console (1.0.0-rc11) and core (8.2.4) versions.
    – jensjensen
    Commented Dec 20, 2016 at 17:25
  • Figured it out, pls see the "complete solution" section above.
    – jensjensen
    Commented Dec 21, 2016 at 17:40

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