Yes it would make sense to have only one field that you attach to multiple content types.
If you're using a MySQL backend then a table is created for every field you create in the UI (it's probably similar for other storage backends). If you create a single field and attach it to several different entity/bundle types then only a single table is created with the values for all entities. Fewer tables is definitely more desirable.
Also if you wanted to query the database for all nodes that are within a certain vocabulary (using
EntityFieldQuery or even Views) then the query generated would have two less
JOINs to make which is just much better for performance on the whole.
I think it was the intention of the developers that fields be used in this way, there's a complicated mechanism in place for managing different instances of fields and I don't think that logic would need to exist if they weren't supposed to be used like this.