On a Drupal 8 site, I see an error on a block which says:
This block is broken or missing. You may be missing content or you might need to enable the original module.
How can I resolve this error?
You have created a Custom block and the custom block was placed in a region, then you lost the custom block maybe was deleted or you made a Config Export from one environment and a Config Import in other. So the custom block is no longer exists but in the Block layout page (admin/structure/block), the references exist.
So, remove the missing Block from the Block layout page (admin/structure/block) and create again the Custom block and place it again in the region.
There is a core issue open discussing this problem: https://drupal.org/project/drupal/issues/2756331
This can also be overcome by using this module: https://www.drupal.org/project/recreate_block_content
The placement of the block is stored as configuration. This is what gets exported and synced between environments. The actual content of the block is considered exactly that: content. This means that when you import your new configuration into a different environment (or delete the block and then re-import the configuration) there is a mismatch between the configuration for the block and the actual block instance (which no longer exists).
To resolve this issue, you simply need to delete the configuration for the missing block and then recreate the block. This allows your site to resolve the discrepancies.
Another option would be to use the fixed_block_content contributed module to manage this process for you.
There is a Drupal Core issue discussing this very thing. https://drupal.org/project/drupal/issues/2756331
I had the same problem with Views. After trying a different theme, some of my Views blocks were gone. I checked and the actual Views was disabled. I was able to restore it by going to the views page and "enabling" the Views and all the blocks displayed as expected.
This happens because when a block is created, a unique id is generated (uuid). This can be seen from the block_content table.
A custom block is a piece of content similar to a Node, so if you create a block in one environment (dev for example) and recreate the block manually on a different environment (Production or QA). The block will have a different uuid.
The Configuration Synchronization will be looking for an uuid that doesn't exist. In order to fix this, you need to import the data from the database. Or simply update (id and uuid) on the following tables: