In Drupal 7, is there a way either programmatically or through the UI to generate a list of all of the pages that display a particular view?
There is no way to do this through the UI and even to do it programmatically would be a tall order. Views can contain page, block, panel pane, and other types of display. Those displays can be embedded in pages via blocks, panels, or custom code.
If you have a specific view display in mind, e.g. a block, it would narrow the scope of the task, but the task would still be very difficult.