The error is caused from the fact
install_import_translations() is calling a function that is provided from the Locale module (
locale_translation_use_remote_source()), but since that module is not installed, the function is not found.
The Language module doesn't have the Locale module as dependency, so installing the first doesn't install the second. The opposite is true: One of the dependencies of the Locale module is the Language module.
I cannot say if this is caused by a bug on Drupal core that doesn't check the Locale module is installed before calling one of its functions, but installing the Locale module would resolve the issue. Once the Locale module is installed, Drupal will be able to find its functions, and you won't see that error again.