Short answer: I would simple go with sharing these four fields across the content types that you have. This is boring and repetitive work, but I'm not aware of a well-established way to do it otherwise, so this is the safest bet in my opinion. This gained a bad reputation in D6 as it caused performance problems, but in D7 there is no difference.
Longer answer: I did try copy/pasting of features code at one point, it works, but is quite messy and carries a large risk of "getting it wrong" as it's not documented nor entirely obvious what code needs to be updated.
As Joe Beuckman suggests, creating a custom entity is one way of solving this as well. If you add your shared data columns as entity "properties" instead of fields, they will be shared across all bundles of that entity type. A core example of this is the "title" property on nodes. A lot of modules today work in a entity agnostic fashion, but it's important however to note that the entity API was far from finished in D7. There is no general way for example to handle "entity access" which may or may not be a problem.
Also, on the last approach, you may also want to take a look at the Entity Construction Kit (ECK) module. I haven't used it myself yet, but I believe it could be helpful in creating new entities.