I think this is likely a core bug (in which case I know it is not meant for Drupal Answers) but thought I would check here first to see if possibly I have just missed something in configuration?
I have a very simple (block) view to list a node's title. This view has an id from url contextual filter and a single filter to filter on Content language set for the page (by URL prefix). This block is then placed using Layout Builder on the Full Content view mode for this node type. The view is set to use Tag based caching. When I switch the page back and forth between languages; the title language does not change.
Disabling views caching fixes this.
Testing in Views preview (by changing admin url to set test language prefix) and the View does the right thing. So it seems as though the issue is caused by the tag caching but only for the block placed through layout builder.
I have another more complex view which is also added with layout builder to this same page. It is listing out paragraph content from this same node. In this case, even with Tag based caching enabled; it does do the right thing.