I can't really understand why dates are stored as taxonomy terms, but yes, you can solve your task with powerful plugin system of Views. You should create custom views pager, which adds specific conditions to Views query.
The best example is an article by Views author Earl Miles: Creating a Date Pager Plugin for node "created" field (wow! dates, too).
As an example, we’re going to create a pager plugin that is somewhat useful, and completely non-traditional for Drupal. You have, however, very likely interacted with a pager of this nature before. Instead of relying on the number of results, we’re going to rely on the post date of the content...
The code is avalible in Views plugin examples module.
Your task is more complex and, of course, requires professional skills.