Drupal commerce does not provide anything for this. Actually it must not do it since payment companies require (and often make it completely impossible) to know the credit card properties.
Your only hope is what might be stored in the
commerce_payment_transaction table by the payment gateway. Often additional data is stored as a serialized PHP object in the
If you don't find anything there, you might have to dive into the specification of the payment getway company and check whether they provide this information via the API. If you are lucky this might be integrated into the appropriate drupal commerce payment getway.