For instance, say I have an Author node and multiple Books with entity-reference to that Author. How can I make a view showing each author with a list of their books?
To create a list of referencing content for each row in a view, use views_field_view to pull a secondary view into the row.
Add a secondary view with the fields to list and a contextual filter to receive the nid of the content being referenced from each primary view row.
Add a "Global: View" field to the primary view and use [!nid] for the contextual filter in View Settings to pass each row's nid to the secondary view.