There were a significant number of D6 modules (or versions of) that were pulled into D7 core. I am wondering if there are any for D8?
The short answer is that Drupal is developed by the community, so it depends on what YOU (anyone reading this answer) add to Drupal 8.
I always use the Add jQuery UI elements to core issue as an example of how this process works. A few people had an idea, they posted some code, it was reviewed and debated, then added to Drupal 7 core.
Core contributions are by no means exclusive, so be bold! Start contributing.
Modules brought into core
- Content Translation
- Email (simple field, HTML5 validation only)
- Entity API
- Entity Reference
- Entity view modes
- File Entity
- Link (simple field, HTML5 validation only)
- Phone (simple field, HTML5 validation only)
- Quick Edit
- RESTWS (Renamed to REST module)
- Admin Views (reworked)
- Date (all except recurring dates)
- Display Suite (view modes)
- Views Bulk Operations (reworked)
- Blog (moved to contrib)
- Dashboard (moved to contrib as Homebox)
- Open ID
- Overlay (fundamentally reworked to not provide an "overlay")
- PHP Filter (moved to contrib)
- Poll (moved to contrib)
- Profile (Use Profile2 now)
- Translation (replaced by Entity Translation)
- Trigger (use Rules now)
- Signature (functionality provided by User moved to contrib)
- XML-RPC (moved to contrib)
Modules fundamentally changed by Drupal 8:
Deprecated (you won't need these anymore)
- Administration Language
- Caption Filter
- Computed Field
- Ctools exportables
- Fallback Language Negotiation
- Field Hidden
- Fieldable Panels Panes
- Float Filter
- Hidden Field Widgets
- Localization update
- Localized Drupal Distribution
- Menu Block
- Menu Trails
- Module Filter
- Node Reference
- RSS permissions
- String overrides
- User Picture Field
- User Reference
- Vertical Tabs
- Wysiwyg * (the module and everything related to it)
Reduced (these will have less work to do)
- Backup and Migrate
- Custom Breadcrumbs
- Menu Breadcrumb
- Service Links
- Views * (every module related to views)
It's not modules which are pulled into core, it's functionality. Functionality that might have been provided by contributed modules (and the code that was added to core might have been influenced by those modules but not necessarly that actual code is reused. For example fields, which was inspired by CCK but was a complete rewrite from scratch). And then these contrib modules don't need to be ported to the next core version.
That said, there is no roadmap in Drupal core development. So it is impossible at this point to answer your actual question.
The only thing that now exists are a number of so called core initiatives. That is an area where people are working together under the "lead" of the initiative owner to improve Drupal in a specific area. One of those is HTML5 (which might mean that a number of HTML5 related modules might not be necessary in D8) another is Web Services and Context (which means that for example the Context module will be unecessary and maybe parts of Panels). But all that is just speculation at this point. Because even though these initiatives exist, it is not set in stone that anything they're working on will be commited.
That is basically the two main tasks that Dries Buytaert (and to a certain degree co-maintainers, initiative owners, ...) are doing. They're talking about how Drupal could evolve and what could be done. And then finally Dries decides if a patch is commited or not.
In between, everything depends on if there are people who are interested in something and want to implement/improve/fix some part of Drupal core.