Uninstall is there just to delete changes made to database. If you do not want that deletion to happen, do not uninstall. If you need only one table, back it up before uninstallation and restore it after. If you want to remove module from uninstall list, simply delete it's files.
If you need selected module to be always on, you can use
hook_modules_disabled() in a helper module, to display message like "Disabling of this module is not permitted" and instantly re-enable it. If module is never disabled, there will be no option to uninstall it. Of course if someone with admin privileges will want to destroy your data, he will, so don't give those privileges to those who can't be trusted with them, but at least it should prevent accidental module removal by developer who is not bright enough to stop and think.
Last but not least, if module's data is of significant importance, you have daily or maybe even hourly backups anyway, so accidental deletion is not a problem at all. Backup and Migrate and Elysia Cron are great help with setting up backups like this, but you should also ask your sysadmin to provide automatic copy to another physical machine, if possible.