I don't know if there is any shortcut to put the article into Block, but usually I use Views for that. After installing Views Module
- create new Views and select content of type Article
- Check on Create a Block and Continue and Edit
- In Fields, Select the fields you want to display eg: Article Title, Description, etc.
- Use the Filter to filter results.
If you want to display only the latest Article, then use Sort by Post Date Desc and in Pager settings display max items to 1 with No Pagination option.
Go to Structure->Blocks and select your theme and you can enable/disable what blocks you want to display and where. If you are unsure about the regions in theme then click Demonstrate Block Regions
This looks one heck of a task, but playing around Views would make you more comfortable with Drupal.