If i understand correctly you have field_call_to_action_link in node, paragraph, block entities. And you would like to get values from this field from all entities which contain this field.
I would use EntityQuery and condition to check if field exists in given Entity.
$query = \Drupal::entityQuery('node')
First I SUGGEST to take a look at https://www.drupal.org/project/utf8mb4_convert module
try to adding 'charset' => 'utf8mb4',
'collation' => 'utf8mb4_general_ci', configs to your settings.php file.
after adding it should be something like :
$databases['default']['default'] = array(
'driver' => 'mysql',
'database' => 'databasename',