(I am using Drupal 7 modules as example, but just because there are more examples of security updates for Drupal 7 modules.)
Without custom coding, it's not possible. Drupal.org doesn't use a different name schema for security updates. From the version number you cannot know that version 7.x-3.14 of the Views module was a security update, while version 7.x-3.13 was not a security update.
That information is kept in https://updates.drupal.org/release-history/views/7.x, for the Drupal 7 version of the Views module, or in general in
https://updates.drupal.org/release-history/<project short name>/<Drupal version>.
In the list of terms associated with a release, a Release type term whose value is Security update means the release is a security update.
The classes under the
\Drupal\update namespace can help in writing the required code.
UpdateProcessor::parseXml() is the method used to parse the XML data for a single project, but you would probably need to access one of the services Drupal implements.