I am having some issues with custom field content only displaying on the individual node. I have created a new field called field_second_image for the Article content type. I am calling it right under the regular field_image with print render($content['field_second_image']); in my node--article.tpl.php file. On the actual article node both images display properly. However, on a taxonomy list page or the custom article view page I have created, the second image does not show up. I think this relates to the general issue I've been having getting custom field content to display on pages other than the individual node page. Is there something I'm completely missing about getting this content to appear on other pages? Any help would be greatly appreciated, thank you.
Yes, the concept is
view_modes. See this documentation page as an introduction.
node--article.tpl.php is used to show the
Default view mode of a node. The related taxonomy page(s) for terms lists content out by default using the
Teaser mode. This view mode is usually a succinct version of your complete node fields (sometimes showing a body teaser, and fewer fields).
Some modules to help you create new "view modes" of your content and easily customize how and what is shown are for instance (a small example list, by NO MEANS all of the possabilities, nor are these necessarily the best options):